A photovoltaic system, also known as a solar PV system, is a renewable energy system that converts sunlight into electricity using solar panels. The system is made up of several components, including solar panels, an inverter, a charge controller, and a battery bank (if the system includes energy storage).
Photovoltaics (PV) is the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. The photovoltaic effect is commercially utilized for electricity generation.
photovoltaic system design
The photovoltaic system design can vary depending on the specific needs of the user. However, a typical design includes solar panels that are mounted on a roof or a ground-based rack. These panels are connected in series or parallel to increase the voltage and current output, and are wired to an inverter that converts the DC electricity produced by the panels into AC electricity that can be used by household appliances or fed back into the grid.
The charge controller is used to regulate the amount of electricity flowing from the solar panels to the battery bank (if there is one), and to prevent overcharging of the battery. Energy storage is optional, but can be useful in areas where electricity is unreliable or during power outages.
How Do Solar Panels Make Electricity?
STEP 1: SUNLIGHT ACTIVATES THE PANELS.
STEP 2: THE CELLS PRODUCE ELECTRICAL CURRENT.
STEP 3: THE ELECTRICAL ENERGY IS CONVERTED.
STEP 4: THE CONVERTED ELECTRICITY POWERS YOUR HOME.
A photovoltaic system is supplied with solar modules. A solar module, solar electric panel, photo-voltaic (PV) module or solar panel is an assembly of photo-voltaic cells mounted in a framework for installation. Solar panels use sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity. The DC electricity will be transported to an inverter, which will convert this DC power into alternating current (AC). This AC power is the type of electricity which is used for the electric appliances in your home, also referred to as AC load.
A collection of PV modules is called a PV panel. Each solar module has a certain number of solar cells. A solar cell is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
Therefore, solar cells generate electricity. PV installations may be ground-mounted, rooftop-mounted, wall-mounted or floating.
There is hope that photovoltaic technology will produce enough alternative energy to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Advantages of Solar PV
* Once installed, it does not pollute or generate greenhouse gas emissions
* It has a simple scalability in terms of energy needs
* Silicon has a high availability in the earth’s crust
Disadvantages of Solar PV
* Land use competition
* Requires energy storage systems or global distribution through high voltage DC power lines
* unstable power generation
Photovoltaic systems have long been used in specialized applications as stand-alone installations and grid-connected PV systems. A grid-connected photovoltaic system, or grid-connected PV system is an electricity generating solar PV power system that is connected to the utility grid. A grid-connected PV system consists of solar panels, one or several inverters, a power conditioning unit and grid connection equipment.
Technological advances and increased production have led to the efficiency of photovoltaic installations.